The border dilemma
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In 2016-2018, Benjamin Boudou developed “The Border Dilemma” project, which aimed at investigating democratic justifications of borders. First, he reconstructed the ongoing debate on the ethics of immigration to explain how the ‘boundary dilemma’ arises, i.e., the difficulty of reconciling a clear justification for border controls with a solid defense of freedom and equality. Secondly, he argued that the main positions in this debate rely on methodological nationalism, i.e., they build their theories on a biased image of the political community. Thirdly, he made the case for a pragmatist definition of democratic communities, and contends that the various interests of members and non-members should equally be taken into account in order to ensure participation of those whose interests are severely affected.