Re-envisioning citizenship: trends and determinants of the instrumental turn of citizenship
In her pre-doctoral fellowship, Mira works on developing her dissertation proposal where she, amongst other topics, works on the empirical study of Citizenship-by-Investment programs. These programs offer the global super-rich expedited ways to obtain citizenship in return for monetary investments. In 2020, 40 countries sell citizenship, including some of the Caribbean islands, Pacific Rim countries, and Member States of the European Union. This trend has led to both political and scholarly debates as to whether citizenship should be for sale. Beyond normative controversy, the empirical study of the determinants of investor citizenship programs remains limited. To fill this gap, Mira develops a global and longitudinal dataset, screening nationality laws from 1980 onwards in order to document which countries introduced investor citizenship at which point in time. Subsequently, she conducts a quantitative analysis on the macro-level determinants associated with investor citizenship. Her co-authors for this study are Ayelet Shachar, Jelena Dzankic, and Maarten Vink.