Abstract In both Germany and France, perceptions of immigration, diversity and their societal consequences have undergone important transformations in the past two decades. However, existing research has only partially captured such processes. The “grand narratives” of national approaches, while still influential, no longer explain contemporary realities. Further, analyses of national politics and discourses may not sufficiently reflect the realities across localities and society more broadly. While emerging in different national contexts, little is known about how diversity is actually perceived by political stakeholders at the urban level. Given the key role of immigration and diversity in current conflicts over Europe’s future, it is imperative to assess present-day conceptualisations of migration-related diversity among important societal actors. Link
Governing Islam in French cities: defining ‘acceptable’ public religiosity through municipal consultative bodies. Religion, State and Society.
Abstract In recent years, European states have institutionalised relations with Islamic groups in the form of national Islam councils. Similarly, municipalities have set up more or less comparable bodies to address issues related to urban religious diversity. However, rather than being restricted to Muslim representatives, municipal consultative bodies usually incorporate a variety of religious actors. This contribution analyses three such bodies in the French cities of Rennes, Bordeaux, and Toulouse. Adopting a governance perspective and drawing on qualitative fieldwork, I argue that by providing concrete advice on how to address religious issues, these bodies define what are considered ‘acceptable’ and ‘non-acceptable’ public religious expressions, ultimately influencing normative ideas about laïcité. Moreover, I argue that the history of relationships between religious and municipal authorities and the political culture of the cities, among other factors, shape these local processes, thereby emphasising the distinct role of cities and urban actors in governing religion. Link
Martínez-Ariño, J., Moutselos, M., Schönwälder, K., Jacobs, C., Schiller, M., & Tandé, A. (2018) Why do some cities adopt more diversity policies than others? A study in France and Germany. Comparative European Politics.
Abstract An increasing sociocultural heterogeneity of populations and vocal demands for the recognition of diversity have become common features of, in particular, cities in Western Europe. Do cities reshape policies in respon se to such developments? And to what extent do they implement policies that accommodate difference? We use data from an original survey of urban policy actors in the twenty largest cities of France and Germany to identify city-level diversity policy instruments. In both countries, such instruments are widespread, contradicting assumptions of dominant assimilationist paradigms. And yet, the degree of adoption across cities varies. Drawing on institutionalist theory, we investigate what might explain differing adoption rates. The main ﬁnding is that key determinants at the urban level differ between the two countries. In France, the political constellation is crucial; higher numbers of diversity policies are associated with centre-left dominance. In contrast, in German cities, political consensus around diversity policies seems to prevail and higher adoption rates are associated with higher population diversity. Our ﬁndings provide a ﬁrst wide-ranging account of the adoption of diversity policy instruments in European cities. They demonstrate that such policies exist at a relevant scale. They further help explain why the adoption of diversity policy instruments is uneven. download pdf
Moutselos, M., Jacobs, C., Martínez-Ariño, J., Schiller, M., Schönwälder, K., Tandé, A. (2018) Economy or Justice? How Urban Actors Respond to Diversity. Urban Affairs Review, 56 (1): 228-253.
Abstract The diversification of population, demands for recognition, and the spread of diversity policies present new challenges to European cities. Do urban actors respond to this development in different ways across cities? Can we distinguish a logic determined by economic considerations or rather a justice-oriented logic? This article presents evidence from 20 German cities based on an original survey of important urban actors. This design reflects current realities of urban governance. Results indicate that, across Germany’s biggest cities, there is a normative consensus over the benefits of diversity. However, other positions are controversial and views seem partly incoherent. Cities neither clearly position themselves as pro- or antidiversity cities nor do most of them adopt clear market-oriented or justice-oriented approaches. We conclude that, in a relatively new field, positions are still uncrystallized, and hybrid combinations of perspectives may remain typical in societies with strong social-welfare traditions. Link
Jacobs, C. (2017). Das Zusammenleben in der vielfältigen Stadt planen. In: BBSR (Hg.): Flüchtlinge – zwischen Ankommen und Zusammenleben, Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (IzR), Heft 2/2017, S. 44-49.
Abstract Geflüchtete integrieren und gleichzeitig für ein gutes Miteinander in der Bevölkerung sorgen? Nicht immer haben Städte in den vergangenen Jahren an den richtigen Stellschrauben gedreht. Eine wichtige Rolle spielt vor allem der Wohnungsmarkt. Link
Martínez-Ariño, J. (2017). Conceptualising the role of cities in the governance of religious diversity in Europe. Current Sociology.
Abstract The sociological literature has devoted less attention to cities than to nation-states as contexts for the regulation of religion and religious diversity in Europe. Drawing on ideas from the literature on migration, urban studies, geography and the sociology of religion, as well as empirical material from fieldwork conducted in three medium-size cities in France, the author conceptualises the governance of religious diversity in cities as complex assemblages where (1) the political interests and claims of various unequally socially positioned actors over (2) a number of domains and objects of the public expression of religiosity are (3) subjected to a variety of municipal interventions, which are (4) shaped by the interplay of supranational legal frameworks, national legislation, policies, institutional arrangements and local contextual factors. The result of these regulation processes are particular (and often contested) normative definitions of ‘accepted’ or ‘legitimate’ public expressions of religiosity, subsequently enacted by a variety of local actors through both formal procedures and informal practices. Link
Moutselos, M., Jacobs, C., Martínez-Ariño, J., Schiller, M., Schönwälder, K., & Tandé, A. (2017). Cities and the Challenge of Diversity (CityDiv): The Survey, Technical Report. MMG Working Paper, (17-09).
Abstract The working paper describes the CityDiv-Survey, conducted in the 20 largest cities in Germany and France. This includes the criteria for the selection of respondents, the considerations underlying the drafting of the questionnaire and the stages of survey dissemination. The report also provides a description of variable groupings, descriptive statistics of response rates, and the full questionnaire. download pdf
Martínez-Ariño, J. (2016). Grupos religiosos y gobierno local en interacción: Un estudio de caso en Francia, Sociedad y Religión, 26(46): 201-223.
Abstract (Spanish) La “ley de separación” de 1905 define la relación entre estado y grupos religiosos en Francia. Sin embargo, el modo en el que las diferentes instituciones del estado interactúan con las organizaciones religiosas así como el trazado de las fronteras entre lo religioso y lo secular, lo público y lo privado, son algo dinámico que varía según las circunstancias de cada momento histórico. Este artículo analiza las relaciones entre organizaciones religiosas y gobierno local en Francia alejándose de la noción de “modelo francés de laicidad”. A partir de un estudio de caso en una ciudad mediana, el análisis muestra cómo se negocia y concreta en el nivel local la idea de neutralidad y de separación iglesia-estado, quiénes son los actores incluidos en tal proceso y qué definición se desprende de expresiones públicas de la religión consideradas aceptables. download pdf