<span class="free_area0_p8 endline itemHeadline">Schönwälder, K. (ed). <span class="DisplayDateStatus">(2020).</span> Special Issue: Diversity in local political practice. <span class="Italic"><em> Ethnic and Racial Studies</em>, 43(11)</span>.</span>


Schönwälder, K. (2020). "Introduction. Diversity in local political practice." Ethnic and Racial Studies (Special Issue: Diversity in local political practice) 43(11): 1929-1941.  Link
Abstract This article frames and introduces the contributions to a special issue. Their focus is on France and Germany, not only two major immigration countries in Europe, but also countries where local authorities have a relatively strong position within the state structure. While other studies have often focused on policy declarations, the eight articles in this special issue provide rich evidence on the content and implementation of policies. Furthermore, several articles offer theoretical insights into the factors driving or hindering policies that acknowledge socio-cultural heterogeneity, ensure more equality and inclusive public services. Results of a project at the Göttingen Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity are presented together with other contributions. The introduction concludes with reflections on the difficulties of “intercultural” communication among scholars and comparison of France and Germany.

Lang, C. (2020). “Workforce Diversity Policies in Practice: Drivers and Barriers in Local Administrations.” Ethnic and Racial Studies (Special Issue: Diversity in local political practice) 43(11): 1961-1980.  Link
Abstract Employment in the municipal workforce is a key area in which cities shape the inclusion of their population of immigrant origin. While many European cities have developed policies aiming to foster the employment of staff of immigrant origin, little is known about the drivers and barriers of their implementation. Based on a comparative case study of local administrations in one German regional state and drawing on organizational theory, this article explores the role of organizational factors. It shows how the interplay of mainly two factors matters: support from the administrative leadership and the pragmatic recruitment rationalities of the human resources practitioners. Additionally, the findings suggest that the local identity as municipality more or less shaped by immigration also informs practices. The article argues that to understand the implementation of policies promoting workforce diversity organizational structures and rationalities must be considered.

Moutselos, M. (2020). What explains diversity-policy adoption? Policy entrepreneurs and advocacy coalitions in two French cities. Ethnic and Racial Studies (Special Issue: Diversity in local political practice) 43(11): 2001-2021.   Link

Abstract When it comes to public policies that recognize and accommodate ethnic, cultural and religious diversity, cities are active and innovative. However, policy adoption can differ greatly from case to case, with different policy processes leading to different types of instruments across local contexts. This paper focuses on two cases from France, a country usually associated with hostility towards recognizing group-based diversity. In Marseille, there has been a decades-long consensus around group-based multiculturalism. The impetus has come from mayors (“policy entrepreneurs”) of both the centre-left and the centre-right. In Grenoble, the uninterrupted dominance of a strong left-wing administration has infused diversity policy with more traditional themes, such as anti-discrimination, universalist participation and civil-society support in the city's stigmatized southern neighbourhoods. The study demonstrates that local-level diversity policy may feature a mix of multicultural, intercultural and universalist elements, and that tracing local policy processes can explain puzzling policy outcomes.

Schiller, M., Martínez-Ariño, J. & Bolíbar, M. (2020) A relational approach to local immigrant policy-making: collaboration with immigrant advocacy bodies in French and German cities. Ethnic and Racial Studies (Special Issue: Diversity in local political practice) 43(11): 2041-2061 .   Link
Abstract The role of immigrant advocacy bodies in collaborative policy–making in cities is so far insufficiently researched. This article investigates the ties between relevant urban actors and immigrant advocacy bodies in cities in two Western European countries. We draw on an original survey in forty French and German cities as well as fieldwork in one French and one German city to analyze whether urban actors from a variety of policy sectors and domains of society cooperate with immigrant councils and immigrant associations, and which factors explain such collaboration. Counter to the existing literature on the role of intermediaries between municipalities and immigrant populations, we find a widespread existence of ties with immigrant advocacy bodies. However, such ties are not mainstreamed. Instead, collaboration is most present among actors in charge of immigrant affairs, and when actors meet in policy fora that allow interaction between urban actors and immigrant advocacy bodies.

Tandé, A. (2020) Cultural policies mixing commonality and difference? The case of public libraries in French cities. Ethnic and Racial Studies (Special Issue: Diversity in local political practice) 43(11): 2062-2079 .   Link
Abstract Libraries are a core element of local cultural policies. In a country historically marked by national integration policies aiming at cultural homogeneity, what is the relationship of local public libraries to the socio-cultural diversity of populations? The results of qualitative studies conducted in three major cities (Bordeaux, Rennes and Nantes) display a growing awareness of more diverse users and adaptations to their demands. Librarians, at the same time, do not give up the universalist ideals central to the history of their institutions and their current activities. Despite differences between cities, the case of public libraries illustrates the possibility to combine universalism and diversity in the policies implemented in France, here in the cultural field. My study demonstrates how local institutions can use their room for manoevre and combine elements of the republican ideal and adjustments to a diverse social reality.

<span class="free_area0_p8 endline itemHeadline">Martínez Ariño, J. <span class="DisplayDateStatus">(2021).</span> <span class="Italic"><em>Urban secularism: Negotiating religious diversity in Europe</em></span>. New york: Routledge, Taylor &amp; Francis Group. </span>
While French laïcité is often considered something fixed, its daily deployment is rather messy. What might we learn if we study the governance of religion from a dynamic bottom-up perspective? Using an ethnographic approach, this book examines everyday secularism in the making. How do city actors understand, frame and govern religious diversity? Which local factors play a role in those processes? In Urban Secularism: Negotiating Religious Diversity in Europe, Julia Martínez-Ariño brings the reader closer to the entrails of laïcité. She provides detailed accounts of the ways religious groups, city officials, municipal employees, secularist actors and other civil-society organisations negotiate concrete public expressions of religion.
Drawing on rich empirical material, the book demonstrates that urban actors draw and (re-)produce dichotomies of inclusion and exclusion, and challenge static conceptions of laïcité and the nation. Illustrating how urban, national and international contexts interact with one another, the book provides researchers with a deeper understanding of the multilevel governance of religious diversity. mehr

Schiller, M., Lang, C., Schönwälder, K., & Moutselos, M. (2020) Vielfalt and diversité: how local actors in France and Germany evaluate immigration and socio-cultural heterogeneity. Comparative Migration Studies.

Abstract In both Germany and France, perceptions of immigration, diversity and their societal consequences have undergone important transformations in the past two decades. However, existing research has only partially captured such processes. The “grand narratives” of national approaches, while still influential, no longer explain contemporary realities. Further, analyses of national politics and discourses may not sufficiently reflect the realities across localities and society more broadly. While emerging in different national contexts, little is known about how diversity is actually perceived by political stakeholders at the urban level. Given the key role of immigration and diversity in current conflicts over Europe’s future, it is imperative to assess present-day conceptualisations of migration-related diversity among important societal actors. Link

Martínez Ariño, J.
Governing Islam in French cities: defining ‘acceptable’ public religiosity through municipal consultative bodies. Religion, State and Society.

Abstract In recent years, European states have institutionalised relations with Islamic groups in the form of national Islam councils. Similarly, municipalities have set up more or less comparable bodies to address issues related to urban religious diversity. However, rather than being restricted to Muslim representatives, municipal consultative bodies usually incorporate a variety of religious actors. This contribution analyses three such bodies in the French cities of Rennes, Bordeaux, and Toulouse. Adopting a governance perspective and drawing on qualitative fieldwork, I argue that by providing concrete advice on how to address religious issues, these bodies define what are considered ‘acceptable’ and ‘non-acceptable’ public religious expressions, ultimately influencing normative ideas about laïcité. Moreover, I argue that the history of relationships between religious and municipal authorities and the political culture of the cities, among other factors, shape these local processes, thereby emphasising the distinct role of cities and urban actors in governing religion. Link

Martínez-Ariño, J., Moutselos, M., Schönwälder, K., Jacobs, C., Schiller, M., & Tandé, A. (2018) Why do some cities adopt more diversity policies than others? A study in France and Germany. Comparative European Politics.

Abstract An increasing sociocultural heterogeneity of populations and vocal demands for the recognition of diversity have become common features of, in particular, cities in Western Europe. Do cities reshape policies in respon se to such developments? And to what extent do they implement policies that accommodate difference? We use data from an original survey of urban policy actors in the twenty largest cities of France and Germany to identify city-level diversity policy instruments. In both countries, such instruments are widespread, contradicting assumptions of dominant assimilationist paradigms. And yet, the degree of adoption across cities varies. Drawing on institutionalist theory, we investigate what might explain differing adoption rates. The main finding is that key determinants at the urban level differ between the two countries. In France, the political constellation is crucial; higher numbers of diversity policies are associated with centre-left dominance. In contrast, in German cities, political consensus around diversity policies seems to prevail and higher adoption rates are associated with higher population diversity. Our findings provide a first wide-ranging account of the adoption of diversity policy instruments in European cities. They demonstrate that such policies exist at a relevant scale. They further help explain why the adoption of diversity policy instruments is uneven. download pdf

Moutselos, M., Jacobs, C., Martínez-Ariño, J., Schiller, M., Schönwälder, K., Tandé, A. (2018) Economy or Justice? How Urban Actors Respond to Diversity. Urban Affairs Review, 56 (1): 228-253.

Abstract The diversification of population, demands for recognition, and the spread of diversity policies present new challenges to European cities. Do urban actors respond to this development in different ways across cities? Can we distinguish a logic determined by economic considerations or rather a justice-oriented logic? This article presents evidence from 20 German cities based on an original survey of important urban actors. This design reflects current realities of urban governance. Results indicate that, across Germany’s biggest cities, there is a normative consensus over the benefits of diversity. However, other positions are controversial and views seem partly incoherent. Cities neither clearly position themselves as pro- or antidiversity cities nor do most of them adopt clear market-oriented or justice-oriented approaches. We conclude that, in a relatively new field, positions are still uncrystallized, and hybrid combinations of perspectives may remain typical in societies with strong social-welfare traditions. Link

Jacobs, C. (2017). Das Zusammenleben in der vielfältigen Stadt planen. In: BBSR (Hg.): Flüchtlinge – zwischen Ankommen und Zusammenleben, Informationen zur Raumentwicklung (IzR), Heft 2/2017, S. 44-49.

Abstract Geflüchtete integrieren und gleichzeitig für ein gutes Miteinander in der Bevölkerung sorgen? Nicht immer haben Städte in den vergangenen Jahren an den richtigen Stellschrauben gedreht. Eine wichtige Rolle spielt vor allem der Wohnungsmarkt. Link

Martínez-Ariño, J. (2017). Conceptualising the role of cities in the governance of religious diversity in Europe. Current Sociology.

Abstract The sociological literature has devoted less attention to cities than to nation-states as contexts for the regulation of religion and religious diversity in Europe. Drawing on ideas from the literature on migration, urban studies, geography and the sociology of religion, as well as empirical material from fieldwork conducted in three medium-size cities in France, the author conceptualises the governance of religious diversity in cities as complex assemblages where (1) the political interests and claims of various unequally socially positioned actors over (2) a number of domains and objects of the public expression of religiosity are (3) subjected to a variety of municipal interventions, which are (4) shaped by the interplay of supranational legal frameworks, national legislation, policies, institutional arrangements and local contextual factors. The result of these regulation processes are particular (and often contested) normative definitions of ‘accepted’ or ‘legitimate’ public expressions of religiosity, subsequently enacted by a variety of local actors through both formal procedures and informal practices. Link

Moutselos, M., Jacobs, C., Martínez-Ariño, J., Schiller, M., Schönwälder, K., & Tandé, A. (2017). Cities and the Challenge of Diversity (CityDiv): The Survey, Technical Report. MMG Working Paper, (17-09).

Abstract The working paper describes the CityDiv-Survey, conducted in the 20 largest cities in Germany and France. This includes the criteria for the selection of respondents, the considerations underlying the drafting of the questionnaire and the stages of survey dissemination. The report also provides a description of variable groupings, descriptive statistics of response rates, and the full questionnaire. download pdf

Martínez-Ariño, J. (2016). Grupos religiosos y gobierno local en interacción: Un estudio de caso en Francia, Sociedad y Religión, 26(46): 201-223.

Abstract (Spanish) La “ley de separación” de 1905 define la relación entre estado y grupos religiosos en Francia. Sin embargo, el modo en el que las diferentes instituciones del estado interactúan con las organizaciones religiosas así como el trazado de las fronteras entre lo religioso y lo secular, lo público y lo privado, son algo dinámico que varía según las circunstancias de cada momento histórico. Este artículo analiza las relaciones entre organizaciones religiosas y gobierno local en Francia alejándose de la noción de “modelo francés de laicidad”. A partir de un estudio de caso en una ciudad mediana, el análisis muestra cómo se negocia y concreta en el nivel local la idea de neutralidad y de separación iglesia-estado, quiénes son los actores incluidos en tal proceso y qué definición se desprende de expresiones públicas de la religión consideradas aceptables. download pdf

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